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Authoritarian Backlash

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Authoritarian Backlash - Thomas Ambrosio Summary

Authoritarian Russia has adopted five strategies to preserve the Kremlin's political power: insulate, bolster, subvert, redefine and coordinate. Thomas Ambrosio examines each of these in turn, all of which seek to counter or undermine regional democratic trends both at home and throughout the former Soviet Union. Policies such as these are of great concern to the growing literature on how autocratic regimes are becoming more active in their resistance to democracy. Through detailed case studies of each strategy, this book makes significant contributions to our understandings of Russian domestic and foreign policies, democratization theory and the policy challenges associated with democracy promotion.

Cultural Backlash and the Rise of Populism

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Cultural Backlash and the Rise of Populism - Pippa Norris,Ronald Inglehart Summary

A new theoretical analysis of the rise of Donald Trump, Marine le Pen, Nigel Farage, Geert Wilders, Silvio Berlusconi, and Viktor Orbán.

Coloured Revolutions and Authoritarian Reactions

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Coloured Revolutions and Authoritarian Reactions - Evgeny Finkel,Yitzhak M. Brudny Summary

Between 2000 and 2005, colour revolutions swept away authoritarian and semi-authoritarian regimes in Serbia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. Yet, after these initial successes, attempts to replicate the strategies failed to produce regime change elsewhere in the region. The book argues that students of democratization and democracy promotion should study not only the successful colour revolutions, but also the colour revolution prevention strategies adopted by authoritarian elites. Based on a series of qualitative, country-focused studies the book explores the whole spectrum of anti-democratization policies, adopted by autocratic rulers and demonstrates that authoritarian regimes studied democracy promotion techniques, used in various colour revolutions, and focused their prevention strategies on combatting these techniques. The book proposes a new typology of authoritarian reactions to the challenge of democratization and argues that the specific mix of policies and rhetoric, adopted by each authoritarian regime, depended on the perceived intensity of threat to regime survival and the regime’s perceived strength vis-à-vis the democratic opposition. This book was published as a special issue of Democratization.

Civil Society Activism Under Authoritarian Rule

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Civil Society Activism Under Authoritarian Rule - Francesco Cavatorta Summary

This book examines how civil society actors operate under authoritarian constraints, and examines how this is linked to regime change. This book moves beyond traditional notions of civil society and explains the complexity of state-society relations in authoritarian contexts outside the framework of democratization. Rejecting a wholly normative approach, the contributors focus on the whole range of civic activism under authoritarianism, from resistance to support for the political system in place. They explain how activism under authoritarianism is subject to different structures, and demonstrate how active citizens have tried to claw back powers of expression and contestation, but also sought to create a voice for themselves as privileged interlocutors of authoritarian regimes. With a strong empirical focus on a wide range of countries and authoritarian regimes, this book presents cross-country comparisons on Spain, Portugal, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Cuba, Chile, Tunisia, Yemen, Jordan, Afghanistan and Burma. Civil Society Activism under Authoritarian Rule will be of interest to students and scholars of international politics, comparative politics, civil society, authoritarianism and regime change.

Great Games, Local Rules

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Great Games, Local Rules - Alexander Cooley Summary

The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.

Transitions to Democracy

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Transitions to Democracy - Lisa Anderson Summary

Are the factors that initiate democratization the same as those that maintain a democracy already established? The scholarly and policy debates over this question have never been more urgent. In 1970, Dankwart A. Rustow's clairvoyant article "Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model" questioned the conflation of the primary causes and sustaining conditions of democracy and democratization. Now this collection of essays by distinguished scholars responds to and extends Rustow's classic work, Transitions to Democracy--which originated as a special issue of the journal Comparative Politics and contains three new articles written especially for this volume--represents much of the current state of the large and growing literature on democratization in American political science. The essays simultaneously illustrate the remarkable reach of Rustow's prescient article across the decades and reveal what the intervening years have taught us. In light of the enormous opportunities of the post-Cold War world for the promotion of democratic government in parts of the world once thought hopelessly lost of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, this timely collection constitutes and important contribution to the debates and efforts to promote the more open, responsive, and accountable government we associate with democracy.

Mexico, Central, and South America: Social movements

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Mexico, Central, and South America: Social movements - Jorge I. Domínguez Summary

Download or read Mexico, Central, and South America: Social movements book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

The Routledge Concise History of Twentieth-century British Literature

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The Routledge Concise History of Twentieth-century British Literature - Ashley Dawson Summary

In The Routledge Concise History of Twentieth-Century British Literature Ashley Dawson identifies the key British writers and texts, shaped by era-defining cultural and historical events and movements from the period. He provides: Analysis of works by a diverse range of influential authors Examination of the cultural and literary impact of crucial historical, social, political and cultural events Discussion of Britain's imperial status in the century and the diversification of the nation through Black and Asian British Literature Readers are also provided with a comprehensive timeline, a glossary of terms, further reading and explanatory text boxes featuring further information on key figures and events.

Dancing with the Dragon

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Dancing with the Dragon - Dennis Hickey,Baogang Guo Summary

This co-edited book focuses on China's increasing engagement with many of the less developed countries-particularly those in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East-and explores the current and future trends in Beijing's foreign relations.

China's Foreign Relations and the Survival of Autocracies

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China's Foreign Relations and the Survival of Autocracies - Julia Bader Summary

The Chinese government has frequently been criticized for propping up anti-democratic governments. This book investigates the rise of China as an emerging authoritarian power. By comparing China’s bilateral relations to three Asian developing countries – Burma, Cambodia and Mongolia – it examines how China targets specific groups of actors in autocracies versus non-autocracies. It illustrates how the Chinese non-interference policy translates into support for incumbent leaders in autocratic countries and how the Chinese government has thereby profited from exploiting secretive decision making in autocracies to realize its own external interests such as achieving access to natural resources. In a statistical analysis of the patterns of Chinese external cooperation and their impact on the survival of autocratic leaders, the book finds some evidence that China is more likely to target autocracies with economic cooperation. However, only some forms of bilateral interaction are found to increase the prospect of survival for autocratic leaders. This important contribution to the understanding of both external factors of authoritarian endurance and China’s foreign relations, a field of study still lacking systematic investigation, will be of great interest to students and researchers in Development Studies, Asian Studies, International Relations, and International Political Economy.

The EU's Role in World Politics

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The EU's Role in World Politics - Richard Youngs,Senior Associate Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Professor of International Relations Richard Youngs Summary

This book argues that in a range of policy areas - trade, multilateral diplomacy, security, development cooperation, democracy and human rights, energy security – the EU appears to be in retreat from liberal internationalism.

Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

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Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality - Antonia Kupfer Summary

Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality addresses the global transformation of higher education in relation to changes in the labour market. It focuses on the relative impact of elements of globalisation on social inequality, and provides insights into the ways in which these general forces of change are transformed into specific policies shaped by global forces and the various national values, institutional structures and politics of the specified societies. The book begins with a theoretical conceptualization for a comparative understanding of globalization, higher education, labour markets and inequality. This is followed by a range of mainstream accounts from an international selection of contributors of the ways in which national systems have responded to the forces of globalisation and the increasing demand for higher education graduates – in Australia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, New Zealand and the UK. Finally, contributors explore more specific concerns such as the transition from higher education to the labour market in China and Sweden, the division of the ‘knowledge’ workers into traditional social groups in the US, and the role and salience of Doctoral programmes in South Africa in developing a knowledge economy. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Education and Work.

A Companion to Europe, 1900 - 1945

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A Companion to Europe, 1900 - 1945 - Gordon Martel Summary

This volume brings together a distinguished group of international scholars to discuss the major debates in the study of early twentieth-century Europe. Brings together contributions from a distinguished group of international scholars. Provides an overview of current thinking on the period. Traces the great political, social and economic upheavals of the time. Illuminates perennial themes, as well as new areas of enquiry. Takes a pan-European approach, highlighting similarities and differences across nations and regions.

The Televisionary Oracle

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The Televisionary Oracle - Rob Brezsny Summary

A cult of shamanistic women sets out to dismantle the myth of the apocalypse in this genre-spanning tale of kidnap, lust, and menstruation.

The Southeast Asia Handbook

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The Southeast Asia Handbook - Christopher Hudson,Georgina Wilde Summary

The Regional Handbooks of Economic Development series provides accessible overviews of countries within their larger domestic and international contexts, focusing on the relations among regions as they meet the challenges of the twenty first century. The series allows the non-specialist student to explore a wide range of complex factors-social and political as well as economic-that affect the growth of developing regions in Asia, Europe, and South America. Each Handbook provides an overview chapter discussing the region's economic conditions within an historical and political context, as well as 20 or more chapter-length essays written by recognized experts, which analyze the key issues affecting a region's economy: its population, natural resources, foreign trade, labor problems, and economic inequalities, and other vital factors. In addition, the volumes offer useful support materials, including a series of appendices that include a detailed chronology of events in the region, a glossary of terms, biographical entries on key personalities, an annotated bibliography of further reading, and a comprehensive analytical index.

Building Democracy

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Building Democracy - Geoffrey Pridham,Eric Herring,George Sanford,University of Bristol. Dept. of Politics Summary

International factors have had a great effect upon the process of democratisation in Eastern Europe according to the contributors to this book. Furthermore they maintain that the international dimension has not always been a favourable one.

Jordan in Transition

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Jordan in Transition - N.A Summary

A discussion of transition in Jordan between 1990-2000, showing it to be a multi-faceted process. It shows that significant change in Jordan depends on the outcome of the Palestine/Israel conflict and the new relationships it can forge with the wider world, particularly with Europe.

Russia, EU and the Post-Soviet Democratic Failure

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Russia, EU and the Post-Soviet Democratic Failure - Bidzina Lebanidze Summary

By studying the influence of the two main external actors in post-Soviet space, the EU and Russia, this study contributes to the increasing body of literature that studies the causes of democratic recession and authoritarian backlash in post-Soviet states and the role of regional actors in these processes. Empirically, the study finds the EU to be both a democracy-promoting and democracy-hindering actor in post-Soviet states. Russia’s impact, on the other hand, is far more negative than the literature on democratization and autocracy promotion typically suggests. It negatively affects both the quality of democracy of post-Soviet states and limits the EU's options for promoting democracy in its neighborhood.

India and the European Union - Two Models of Integration

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India and the European Union - Two Models of Integration - Sebastian Erckel Summary

Master's Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - Political Systems - General and Comparisons, grade: very good, University of Kerala (Department of Political Science), course: MA Political Science, language: English, abstract: The late 20th century has witnessed a confusing and seemingly also threatening diversification of world politics, especially after the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union. While shortly after these events the victory of democracy was celebrated or even the “end of history” proclaimed (Fukuyama), it soon became clear that these rather optimistic assumptions could not be sustained. Huntington (1993) predicted conflicts along cultural lines and Alvin and Heidi Toffler (1994) assumed these conflicts would take the form of asymmetric warfare leading to the phenomenon of “failed states” which, according to Chomsky (2006), present a threat to democracy. Asymmetric warfare, cultural conflicts and failed states have all already left their impact on the young 21st century. Yet the same period of time has also seen unprecedented global integration, in the economy, but in terms of human personal exchange as well, largely fueled by new communication technologies. However, the emerging “global village” seems to bear more characteristics of a Hobbesian state of nature than of a global civilization. Furthermore, as there are an ever increasing number of issues which can obviously only be addressed on a transnational basis, it becomes necessary to supplement global economic integration with an adequate political framework. Both India and the European Union are prime examples of political integration, the former for national and the latter for regional integration. However, one of the presumptions of this dissertation is that in both cases complementary forms of political integration can be identified: while in India national integration necessitated regional integration, the European Union may well be on its way toward a European super- state. The term “model” has two connotations: (1) it describes a distinguishable set of characteristics, and (2) it contains a (usually positive) qualitative aspect, something that could/ should be followed or imitated. While in the case of India and the European Union the first connotation is rather obvious as two distinctive types of integration can be identified, this dissertation not only attempts to analyse these different types but also to verify whether the second connotation can be applied or not. As the hypothesis is that in both types elements of the other will be identifiable, the focus rests upon discovering certain patterns of integration while at the same time appreciating the differences.

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