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Unsolved Problems in Geometry

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Unsolved Problems in Geometry - Hallard T. Croft,Kenneth Falconer,Richard K. Guy Summary

Mathematicians and non-mathematicians alike have long been fascinated by geometrical problems, particularly those that are intuitive in the sense of being easy to state, perhaps with the aid of a simple diagram. Each section in the book describes a problem or a group of related problems. Usually the problems are capable of generalization of variation in many directions. The book can be appreciated at many levels and is intended for everyone from amateurs to research mathematicians.

The Millennium Prize Problems

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The Millennium Prize Problems - James Carlson,James A. Carlson,Arthur Jaffe,Andrew Wiles,Clay Mathematics Institute,American Mathematical Society Summary

On August 8, 1900, at the second International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris, David Hilbert delivered his famous lecture in which he described twenty-three problems that were to play an influential role in mathematical research. A century later, on May 24, 2000, at a meeting at the College de France, the Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) announced the creation of a US$7 million prize fund for the solution of seven important classic problems which have resisted solution. The prize fund is divided equally among the seven problems. There is no time limit for their solution. The Millennium Prize Problems were selected by the founding Scientific Advisory Board of CMI--Alain Connes, Arthur Jaffe, Andrew Wiles, and Edward Witten--after consulting with other leading mathematicians. Their aim was somewhat different than that of Hilbert: not to define new challenges, but to record some of the most difficult issues with which mathematicians were struggling at the turn of the second millennium; to recognize achievement in mathematics of historical dimension; to elevate in the consciousness of the general public the fact that in mathematics, the frontier is still open and abounds in important unsolved problems; and to emphasize the importance of working towards a solution of the deepest, most difficult problems. The present volume sets forth the official description of each of the seven problems and the rules governing the prizes. It also contains an essay by Jeremy Gray on the history of prize problems in mathematics.

Problem-Solving and Selected Topics in Euclidean Geometry

Problem-Solving and Selected Topics in Euclidean Geometry Pdf/ePub eBook

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Problem-Solving and Selected Topics in Euclidean Geometry - Sotirios E. Louridas,Michael Th. Rassias Summary

"Problem-Solving and Selected Topics in Euclidean Geometry: in the Spirit of the Mathematical Olympiads" contains theorems which are of particular value for the solution of geometrical problems. Emphasis is given in the discussion of a variety of methods, which play a significant role for the solution of problems in Euclidean Geometry. Before the complete solution of every problem, a key idea is presented so that the reader will be able to provide the solution. Applications of the basic geometrical methods which include analysis, synthesis, construction and proof are given. Selected problems which have been given in mathematical olympiads or proposed in short lists in IMO's are discussed. In addition, a number of problems proposed by leading mathematicians in the subject are included here. The book also contains new problems with their solutions. The scope of the publication of the present book is to teach mathematical thinking through Geometry and to provide inspiration for both students and teachers to formulate "positive" conjectures and provide solutions.

Unsolved Problems in Geometry

Unsolved Problems in Geometry Pdf/ePub eBook

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Unsolved Problems in Geometry - Hallard T. Croft,K. J. Falconer,Richard K. Guy Summary

Download or read Unsolved Problems in Geometry book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory

Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory Pdf/ePub eBook

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Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory - Vincent D. Blondel,Alexandre Megretski Summary

This book provides clear presentations of more than sixty important unsolved problems in mathematical systems and control theory. Each of the problems included here is proposed by a leading expert and set forth in an accessible manner. Covering a wide range of areas, the book will be an ideal reference for anyone interested in the latest developments in the field, including specialists in applied mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The book consists of ten parts representing various problem areas, and each chapter sets forth a different problem presented by a researcher in the particular area and in the same way: description of the problem, motivation and history, available results, and bibliography. It aims not only to encourage work on the included problems but also to suggest new ones and generate fresh research. The reader will be able to submit solutions for possible inclusion on an online version of the book to be updated quarterly on the Princeton University Press website, and thus also be able to access solutions, updated information, and partial solutions as they are developed.

Erdos on Graphs

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Erdos on Graphs - Fan Chung,Ron Graham Summary

This book is a tribute to Paul Erd\H{o}s, the wandering mathematician once described as the "prince of problem solvers and the absolute monarch of problem posers." It examines -- within the context of his unique personality and lifestyle -- the legacy of open problems he left to the world after his death in 1996. Unwilling to succumb to the temptat

Number Theory and Geometry: An Introduction to Arithmetic Geometry

Number Theory and Geometry: An Introduction to Arithmetic Geometry Pdf/ePub eBook

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Number Theory and Geometry: An Introduction to Arithmetic Geometry - Álvaro Lozano-Robledo Summary

Geometry and the theory of numbers are as old as some of the oldest historical records of humanity. Ever since antiquity, mathematicians have discovered many beautiful interactions between the two subjects and recorded them in such classical texts as Euclid's Elements and Diophantus's Arithmetica. Nowadays, the field of mathematics that studies the interactions between number theory and algebraic geometry is known as arithmetic geometry. This book is an introduction to number theory and arithmetic geometry, and the goal of the text is to use geometry as the motivation to prove the main theorems in the book. For example, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic is a consequence of the tools we develop in order to find all the integral points on a line in the plane. Similarly, Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity and the theory of continued fractions naturally arise when we attempt to determine the integral points on a curve in the plane given by a quadratic polynomial equation. After an introduction to the theory of diophantine equations, the rest of the book is structured in three acts that correspond to the study of the integral and rational solutions of linear, quadratic, and cubic curves, respectively. This book describes many applications including modern applications in cryptography; it also presents some recent results in arithmetic geometry. With many exercises, this book can be used as a text for a first course in number theory or for a subsequent course on arithmetic (or diophantine) geometry at the junior-senior level.

Discrete and Computational Geometry

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Discrete and Computational Geometry - Satyan L. Devadoss,Joseph O'Rourke Summary

Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also features numerous exercises and unsolved problems. The essential introduction to discrete and computational geometry Covers traditional topics as well as new and advanced material Features numerous full-color illustrations, exercises, and unsolved problems Suitable for sophomores in mathematics, computer science, engineering, or physics Rigorous but accessible An online solutions manual is available (for teachers only). To obtain access, please e-mail: [email protected]

Euclidean Geometry in Mathematical Olympiads

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Euclidean Geometry in Mathematical Olympiads - Evan Chen Summary

This is a challenging problem-solving book in Euclidean geometry, assuming nothing of the reader other than a good deal of courage. Topics covered included cyclic quadrilaterals, power of a point, homothety, triangle centers; along the way the reader will meet such classical gems as the nine-point circle, the Simson line, the symmedian and the mixtilinear incircle, as well as the theorems of Euler, Ceva, Menelaus, and Pascal. Another part is dedicated to the use of complex numbers and barycentric coordinates, granting the reader both a traditional and computational viewpoint of the material. The final part consists of some more advanced topics, such as inversion in the plane, the cross ratio and projective transformations, and the theory of the complete quadrilateral. The exposition is friendly and relaxed, and accompanied by over 300 beautifully drawn figures. The emphasis of this book is placed squarely on the problems. Each chapter contains carefully chosen worked examples, which explain not only the solutions to the problems but also describe in close detail how one would invent the solution to begin with. The text contains as selection of 300 practice problems of varying difficulty from contests around the world, with extensive hints and selected solutions. This book is especially suitable for students preparing for national or international mathematical olympiads, or for teachers looking for a text for an honor class.

Open Problems in Mathematics

Open Problems in Mathematics Pdf/ePub eBook

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Open Problems in Mathematics - John Forbes Nash, Jr.,Michael Th. Rassias Summary

The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer science, and more. Extensive discussions surrounding the progress made for each problem are designed to reach a wide community of readers, from graduate students and established research mathematicians to physicists, computer scientists, economists, and research scientists who are looking to develop essential and modern new methods and theories to solve a variety of open problems.

Martin Gardner in the Twenty-first Century

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Martin Gardner in the Twenty-first Century - Michael Henle Summary

"This book collects articles Gardner wrote for the MAA in the twenty-first century, together with other articles the MAA published from 1999-2012 that spring from and comment on his work"--Cover.

The Mathematical Coloring Book

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The Mathematical Coloring Book - Alexander Soifer Summary

This book provides an exciting history of the discovery of Ramsey Theory, and contains new research along with rare photographs of the mathematicians who developed this theory, including Paul Erdös, B.L. van der Waerden, and Henry Baudet.

Choice

Choice Pdf/ePub eBook

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Choice - N.A Summary

Download or read Choice book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Research Problems in Discrete Geometry

Research Problems in Discrete Geometry Pdf/ePub eBook

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Research Problems in Discrete Geometry - Peter Brass,William O. J. Moser,János Pach Summary

This book is the result of a 25-year-old project and comprises a collection of more than 500 attractive open problems in the field. The largely self-contained chapters provide a broad overview of discrete geometry, along with historical details and the most important partial results related to these problems. This book is intended as a source book for both professional mathematicians and graduate students who love beautiful mathematical questions, are willing to spend sleepless nights thinking about them, and who would like to get involved in mathematical research.

Combinatorial geometry

Combinatorial geometry Pdf/ePub eBook

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Combinatorial geometry - János Pach,Pankaj K. Agarwal Summary

A complete, self-contained introduction to a powerful and resurging mathematical discipline . Combinatorial Geometry presents and explains with complete proofs some of the most important results and methods of this relatively young mathematical discipline, started by Minkowski, Fejes Toth, Rogers, and Erd???s. Nearly half the results presented in this book were discovered over the past twenty years, and most have never before appeared in any monograph. Combinatorial Geometry will be of particular interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and materials scientists interested in computational geometry, robotics, scene analysis, and computer-aided design. It is also a superb textbook, complete with end-of-chapter problems and hints to their solutions that help students clarify their understanding and test their mastery of the material. Topics covered include: * Geometric number theory * Packing and covering with congruent convex disks * Extremal graph and hypergraph theory * Distribution of distances among finitely many points * Epsilon-nets and Vapnik--Chervonenkis dimension * Geometric graph theory * Geometric discrepancy theory * And much more

Combinatorial Geometry in the Plane

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Combinatorial Geometry in the Plane - Hugo Hadwiger,Hans Debrunner,Victor Klee Summary

Advanced undergraduate-level text discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane, such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. Two-part treatment begins with specific topics followed by an extensive selection of short proofs. 1964 edition.

Fermat's Last Theorem

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Fermat's Last Theorem - Harold M. Edwards Summary

This introduction to algebraic number theory via the famous problem of "Fermats Last Theorem" follows its historical development, beginning with the work of Fermat and ending with Kummers theory of "ideal" factorization. The more elementary topics, such as Eulers proof of the impossibilty of x+y=z, are treated in an uncomplicated way, and new concepts and techniques are introduced only after having been motivated by specific problems. The book also covers in detail the application of Kummers theory to quadratic integers and relates this to Gauss'theory of binary quadratic forms, an interesting and important connection that is not explored in any other book.

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