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Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics

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Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics - John N. Bahcall Summary

Essays discuss the present state of knowledge following recent discoveries about the structure of the universe, galaxies, quasars, neutrinos, and other topics, and suggest areas for future research

Unsolved Problems in Stellar Evolution

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Unsolved Problems in Stellar Evolution - Space Telescope Science Institute (U.S.). Symposium,Space Telescope Science Institute (U.S.) Summary

The most comprehensive and up-to-date survey available on stellar structure and evolution, with a special emphasis on currently unsolved problems.

Unsolved Problems in Stellar Physics

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Unsolved Problems in Stellar Physics - Richard J. Stancliffe Summary

This volume is comprised of a series of papers dealing with some of the current unsolved problems in the field of stellar physics. It is also a celebration of the contributions made to this subject by Prof. Douglas Gough. Topics discussed include: stars, interiors, stars: evolution, asteroseismology, helioseismology, and fluid dynamics. The book will appeal to researchers in the fields of helioseismology, asteroseismology, stellar evolution, stellar physics and fluid dynamics.

Unfolding the Labyrinth: Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and other areas of science

Unfolding the Labyrinth: Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and other areas of science Pdf/ePub eBook

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Unfolding the Labyrinth: Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and other areas of science - Florentin Smarandache,V. Christianto Summary

Throughout this book, we discuss some open problems in various branches of science, including mathematics, theoretical physics, astrophysics, geophysics etc. It is of our hope that some of the problems discussed in this book will find their place either in theoretical exploration or further experiments, while some parts of these problems may be found useful for scholarly stimulation.The present book is also intended for young physics and mathematics fellows who will perhaps find the unsolved problems described here are at least worth pondering. If this book provides only a few highlights of plausible solutions, it is merely to keep the fun of readers in discovering the answers by themselves. Bon voyage!

Unsolved Problems in Special and General Relativity

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Unsolved Problems in Special and General Relativity - Florentin Smarandache (Chief Editor), Fu Yuhua and Zhao Fengjuan (Vice-Chief Editors) Summary

Download or read Unsolved Problems in Special and General Relativity book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

The World's 20 Greatest Unsolved Problems

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The World's 20 Greatest Unsolved Problems - John R. Vacca Summary

Delves deep into mysteries such as the creation of the universe, dark matter, the quantum theory of gravity, protein folding, free will, consciousness, earthquake prediction, Fullerenes, the quantum mechanical vacuum, storing or eliminating nuclear waste, and more.

What Don't We Know?

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What Don't We Know? - Balungi Francis Summary

In 1900, the British physicist Lord Kelvin declared "There is nothing new to discover in physics. All that remains is to more accurately measure its quantities" today, hardly anyone would dare say that our knowledge of the universe and everything in it is almost complete.There are still some deficiencies in the standard model of physics, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillations, matter-antimatter asymmetry and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Another problem lies within the mathematical framework of the standard model itself.Some of the major problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomena or experimental result. The others are experimental meaning that there is difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory.In this book , there is given a discussion of what are arguably the most unsolved problems in physics, astrophysics and cosmology. And this book sets to solve them living none untouched. The form of the discussion is not negative: formulating a problem succinctly is essential to a solution. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the book is that many of the problems are interrelated, so the solution of one or a few opens the prospect of widespread advancement. The book is optimal for researchers, students and teachers pursuing a career in physics, astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology.

Rare Earth

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Rare Earth - Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee Summary

What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

Unsolved Problems of the Milky Way

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Unsolved Problems of the Milky Way - Leo Blitz,Peter Teuben Summary

Although the Milky Way is the most studied and best understood galactic system, there are many fundamental questions about our Galaxy that remain unanswered. This book concentrates on those questions which have the widest applicability in all of astrophysics, and for which answers are most likely to be forthcoming in the next few years. Is the Milky Way a barred spiral, and if so, what are its properties? Is the disk of the Milky Way axisymmetric and what does the answer tell us about its dynamical history? Is there a black hole at the center of the Galaxy? How far does the Galaxy extend? How much dark matter is there in the Milky Way system? And more.

Fundamental Questions in Astrophysics: Guidelines for Future UV Observatories

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Fundamental Questions in Astrophysics: Guidelines for Future UV Observatories - Ana I. Gómez de Castro,Willem Wamsteker Summary

Modern astrophysics has evolved early phases of discovery and classification to a physics-oriented quest for answers to fundamental problems from cosmology to the origin and diversity of life-sustainable systems in the Universe. Future progress in modern astrophysics requires access to the electromagnetic spectrum in the broadest energy range. This book describes the fundamental problems in modern astrophysics that cannot progress without easy and wide-spread access to modern UV instrumentation.

Earth Rotation: Solved and Unsolved Problems

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Earth Rotation: Solved and Unsolved Problems - Anny Cazenave Summary

The idea for organl.zl.ng an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the terrestrial and celestial reference systems. A few critical points have been identified as requiring further improvements: (i) appro priate selection of terrestrial sites recognized for their long term stability, (ii) determination of the relationship between terrestrial and celestial references systems as well as between the various terrestrial ones, (iii) improvment of the theory of a rotating elastic earth (the recently adopted theory needs already some corrections').

Unsolved Problems of the Milky Way

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Unsolved Problems of the Milky Way - Leo Blitz,Peter Teuben Summary

Although the Milky Way is the most studied and best understood galactic system, there are many fundamental questions about our Galaxy that remain unanswered. This book concentrates on those questions which have the widest applicability in all of astrophysics, and for which answers are most likely to be forthcoming in the next few years. Is the Milky Way a barred spiral, and if so, what are its properties? Is the disk of the Milky Way axisymmetric and what does the answer tell us about its dynamical history? Is there a black hole at the center of the Galaxy? How far does the Galaxy extend? How much dark matter is there in the Milky Way system? And more.

Theory of Rotating Stars. (PSA-1)

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Theory of Rotating Stars. (PSA-1) - Jean-Louis Tassoul Summary

Ever since the first observations of sunspots in the early seventeenth century, stellar rotation has been a major topic in astronomy and astrophysics. Jean-Louis Tassoul synthesizes a large number of theoretical investigations on rotating stars. Drawing upon his own research, Professor Tassoul also carefully critiques various competing ideas. In the first three chapters, the author provides a short historical sketch of stellar rotation, the main observational data on the Sun and other stars on which the subsequent theory is based, and the basic Newtonian hydrodynamics used to study rotating stars. Following a discussion of some general mechanical properties of stars in a state of permanent rotation, he reviews the main techniques for determining the structure of a rotating star and its stability with respect to infinitesimal disturbances. Since the actual distribution of angular momentum within stars is still unknown, Professor Tassoul considers various models of angular momentum as well as of meridional circulation. He devotes the rest of his study to the problems concerning various groups of stars and stages in stellar evolution. Originally published in 1979. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

The Physics of a Lifetime

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The Physics of a Lifetime - Vitaly L. Ginzburg Summary

Every reader interested in understanding the important problems in physics and astrophysics and their historic development over the past 60 years will enjoy this book immensely. The philosophy, history and the individual views of famous scientists of the 20th century known personally to the author, make this book fascinating for non-physicists, too.

Cosmology and Astrophysics Through Problems

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Cosmology and Astrophysics Through Problems - T. Padmanabhan Summary

An innovative textbook that provides a unique approach to beginning research in cosmology and high energy astrophysics through a series of problems and answers.

Relativistic Flows in Astrophysics

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Relativistic Flows in Astrophysics - A.W. Guthmann,M. Georganopoulos,A. Marcowith,K. Manolakou Summary

1. 1 Schematic Picture of AGN Some galaxies are known to emit radiation with extremely high luminosities from a rather small volume in the ??ray, X-ray and UV continuum. Such active cores are the so-called Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and the radiation is commonly believed to be a result of gravitational energy released by matter spiraling around 9 a supermassive central black hole of about 10 M (see Fig. 1). Though the central engine which produces the enormous observed activity cannot be resolved observationally, a standard picture of an AGN has gradually emerged to explain the richness of the radiation spectra: • an accretion disk with radius from about 2 to 100 gravitational radii, R , g feeding the central black hole and emitting mainly in the UV and soft X-rays; • the broad line optically emitting clouds (BLR), which seem to be absent in 3 some sources (e. g. FRI, see hereafter) and extend up to a few 10 R from g the center.

Heart of Darkness

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Heart of Darkness - Jeremiah P. Ostriker,Simon Mitton Summary

Heart of Darkness describes the incredible saga of humankind's quest to unravel the deepest secrets of the universe. Over the past thirty years, scientists have learned that two little-understood components--dark matter and dark energy--comprise most of the known cosmos, explain the growth of all cosmic structure, and hold the key to the universe's fate. The story of how evidence for the so-called "Lambda-Cold Dark Matter" model of cosmology has been gathered by generations of scientists throughout the world is told here by one of the pioneers of the field, Jeremiah Ostriker, and his coauthor Simon Mitton. From humankind's early attempts to comprehend Earth's place in the solar system, to astronomers' exploration of the Milky Way galaxy and the realm of the nebulae beyond, to the detection of the primordial fluctuations of energy from which all subsequent structure developed, this book explains the physics and the history of how the current model of our universe arose and has passed every test hurled at it by the skeptics. Throughout this rich story, an essential theme is emphasized: how three aspects of rational inquiry--the application of direct measurement and observation, the introduction of mathematical modeling, and the requirement that hypotheses should be testable and verifiable--guide scientific progress and underpin our modern cosmological paradigm. This monumental puzzle is far from complete, however, as scientists confront the mysteries of the ultimate causes of cosmic structure formation and the real nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy.

Essentials on Dark Matter

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Essentials on Dark Matter - Abraao Jesse Capistrano Summary

The modern roots on the dark matter problem were basically launched in the 30s, with Zwicky's observations on a notorious discrepancy of mass in coma cluster that presented 500 times the mass than expected using the Newtonian theory (Virial theorem). Curiously, almost 90 years have passed, and the dark matter problem persists and is one of the most common challenges in both observational and theoretical physics. The Dark Matter is a rapid communication on the status-quo of the dark matter phenomenology as well as a presentation of new discussions on the theme.

Evolutionary Processes in Binary and Multiple Stars

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Evolutionary Processes in Binary and Multiple Stars - Peter Eggleton Summary

Binary systems of stars are as common as single stars. Stars evolve primarily by nuclear reactions in their interiors, but a star with a binary companion can also have its evolution influenced by the companion. Multiple star systems can exist stably for millions of years, but can ultimately become unstable as one star grows in radius until it engulfs another. This volume, first published in 2006, discusses the statistics of binary stars; the evolution of single stars; and several of the most important kinds of interaction between two (and even three or more) stars. Some of the interactions discussed are Roche-lobe overflow, tidal friction, gravitational radiation, magnetic activity driven by rapid rotation, stellar winds, magnetic braking and the influence of a distant third body on a close binary orbit. A series of mathematical appendices gives a concise but full account of the mathematics of these processes.

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