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Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations

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Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations - Derek Abbott,Laszlo B. Kish Summary

Noise and fluctuations are at the seat of all physical systems. The advertised scope of the conference included gravitational wave detection, quantum fluctuations, quantum Brownian motion, Brownian ratchets, stochastic resonance, biological systems, semiconductors, electronic devices, sandpile physics, optical phenomena and all types of stochastic phenomena. This solicited a wide range of papers from cosmology to biology to electronic devices. Using the study of fluctuations as the unifying theme for these diverse disciplines is a new and exciting concept. UpoN is a unique conference in that it focuses on open questions and problems, rather than answers. 90% of the solution is asking the right question. The discovery of a problem is often more profound than the discovery of a solution. In the spirit of this conference, authors were asked to (1) conclude each manuscript with a section called "Conclusions and Open Questions" and (2) ask questions to the audience at the end of their oral presentation. An important characteristic of this conference is that refereeing of all papers was carried out to a high standard by the International Scientific Advisory Committee using a strict double-blind refereeing process.

Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations

Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations Pdf/ePub eBook

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Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations - Sergey M. Bezrukov Summary

All papers in this proceedings volume were peer reviewed. The purview of this third conference was shifted toward biology and medicine. Among the topics covered were: the constructive role of noise in the central nervous system, neuronal networks, and sensory transduction (hearing in humans, photo- and electroreception in marine animals), encoding of information into nerve pulse trains, single molecules and noise (including single molecule detection and characterization by nanopores - molecular "Coulter counting"), concepts of noise in neurophysiology (randomness and order in brain and heart electrical activities under normal conditions and in pathology), the role of noise in genetic regulation and gene expression, biosensors, etc.

Unsolved Problems Of Noise In Physics, Biology, Electronic Technology And Information Technology, Proc

Unsolved Problems Of Noise In Physics, Biology, Electronic Technology And Information Technology, Proc Pdf/ePub eBook

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Unsolved Problems Of Noise In Physics, Biology, Electronic Technology And Information Technology, Proc - Doering Charles R,Kiss L B,Shlesinger Michael F Summary

Much has been learned about the subject of noise and random fluctuations over the last 170 years (some old milestones: Brownian motion, 1826; Einstein's diffusion theory, 1905; Johnson-Nyquist thermal noise, 1926), but much remains to be known. This volume will be interesting reading for physicists, engineers, mathematicians, biologists and PhD students. The invited papers in the volume survey classical unsolved problems while the regular papers present new problems and paradoxes.

Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations

Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations Pdf/ePub eBook

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Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations - L. Reggiani Summary

This fourth edition of the conference focused mainly on noise and fluctuations at the nanometer scale in electron devices, bio-materials, and mesoscopic systems. Since the first conference, the aim of the UPoN conferences is to provide a forum for researchers working on noise and fluctuations, where they can present and discuss their scientific problems with particular attention to those which resist solutions. Topics include: Theoretical frontiers on noise and fluctuations; experimental frontiers on noise and fluctuations; enhanced and suppressed shot noise; noise and coherence; noise and chaos; constructive role of noise; noise in biological systems; noise in devices; and noise in complex systems and non-Gaussian fluctuations.

Noise Research in Semiconductor Physics

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Noise Research in Semiconductor Physics - N Lukyanchikova,B Jones Summary

This book demonstrates the role and abilities of fluctuation in semiconductor physics, and shows what kinds of physical information are involved in the noise characteristics of semiconductor materials and devices, how this information may be decoded and which advantages are inherent to the noise methods. The text provides a comprehensive account of current results, addressing problems which have not previously been covered in Western literature, including the excess noise of tunnel-recombination currents and photocurrents in diodes, fluctuation phenomena in a real photoconductor with different recombination centers, and methods of noise spectroscopy of levels in a wide range of materials and devices.

MacHine-Learning Based Sequence Analysis, Bioinformatics and Nanopore Transduction Detection

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MacHine-Learning Based Sequence Analysis, Bioinformatics and Nanopore Transduction Detection - Stephen Winters-Hilt Summary

This is intended to be a simple and accessible book on machine learning methods and their application in computational genomics and nanopore transduction detection. This book has arisen from eight years of teaching one-semester courses on various machine-learning, cheminformatics, and bioinformatics topics. The book begins with a description of ad hoc signal acquisition methods and how to orient on signal processing problems with the standard tools from information theory and signal analysis. A general stochastic sequential analysis (SSA) signal processing architecture is then described that implements Hidden Markov Model (HMM) methods. Methods are then shown for classification and clustering using generalized Support Vector Machines, for use with the SSA Protocol, or independent of that approach. Optimization metaheuristics are used for tuning over algorithmic parameters throughout. Hardware implementations and short code examples of the various methods are also described.

Predictive Simulation of Semiconductor Processing

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Predictive Simulation of Semiconductor Processing - Jaroslaw Dabrowski,Eicke R. Weber Summary

Predictive Simulation of Semiconductor Processing enables researchers and developers to extend the scaling range of semiconductor devices beyond the parameter range of empirical research. It requires a thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms employed in device fabrication, such as diffusion, ion implantation, epitaxy, defect formation and annealing, and contamination. This book presents an in-depth discussion of our current understanding of key processes and identifies areas that require further work in order to achieve the goal of a comprehensive, predictive process simulation tool.

Noise Sustained Patterns

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Noise Sustained Patterns - Markus Loecher Summary

Ch. 1. Introduction. 1.1. Stability theory revisited. 1.2. Instabilities and nonlinear events in everyday life. 1.3 Postscript -- ch. 2. Essentials. 2.1. Probabilistic and information theoretic measures. 2.2. Matrix manipulations. 2.3. Delay-differential equations. 2.4. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem. 2.5. The Fokker-Planck equation. 2.6. Numerical techniques for the simulation of stochastic equations. 2.7. Experimental aspects of generating noise. 2.8. Complex integration -- ch. 3. Noise induced temporal phenomena. 3.1. Escape from metastable states. 3.2. Stochastic resonance in bistable systems. 3.3. Postscript -- ch. 4. Adding spatial dimensions. 4.1. Spatiotemporal stochastic resonance. 4.2. Doubly stochastic resonance. 4.3. Spatial patterns. 4.4. Postscript -- ch. 5. Stochastic transport phenomena. 5.1. Noise-sustained structures in convectively unstable media. 5.2. Noise sustained front transmission. 5.3. Theory. 5.4. Noise enhanced wave propagation. 5.5. Stochastic ratchets and Brownian motors. 5.6. Postscript -- ch. 6. Sundry topics. 6.1. Minority game. 6.2. Traffic dynamics. 6.3. Dithering. 6.4. Noise in neural networks -- ch. 7. Afterthoughts

Frontiers of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Analysis

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Frontiers of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Analysis - M. Di Rienzo Summary

An increasing number of studies indicate that the analysis of blood pressure and heart rate variability may be a valuable tool for the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular regulation in physiological and pathological conditions. The reader can find in the first part of this book an updated review of the techniques currently employed for the computer analysis of these signals with a particular attention to the most innovative approaches based on the non-linear analysis (including applications of the chaos theory, fractal analysis, I/f modelling) and the time-variant estimation of BP and HR characteristics. The biological interpretation of the results obtained by these computerized procedures and the applicability of these techniques in a clinical setting are fully addressed in the second part of the book.

Flinovia - Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects

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Flinovia - Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects - Elena Ciappi,Sergio De Rosa,Francesco Franco,Jean-Louis Guyader,Stephen A. Hambric Summary

Flow induced vibration and noise (FIVN) remains a critical research topic. Even after over 50 years of intensive research, accurate and cost-effective FIVN simulation and measurement techniques remain elusive. This book gathers the latest research from some of the most prominent experts in the field. It describes methods for characterizing wall pressure fluctuations, including subsonic and supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows over smooth and rough surfaces using computational methods like Large Eddy Simulation; for inferring wall pressure fluctuations using inverse techniques based on panel vibrations or holographic pressure sensor arrays; for calculating the resulting structural vibrations and radiated sound using traditional finite element methods, as well as advanced methods like Energy Finite Elements; for using scaling approaches to universally collapse flow-excited vibration and noise spectra; and for computing time histories of structural response, including alternating stresses. This book presents the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Flow Induced Noise and Vibration (FLINOVIA), which was held in Rome, Italy, in November 2013. The authors’ backgrounds represent a mix of academia, government, and industry, and several papers include applications to important problems for underwater vehicles, aerospace structures and commercial transportation. The book offers a valuable reference guide for all those working in the area of flow-induced vibration and noise.

Advanced Experimental Methods for Noise Research in Nanoscale Electronic Devices

Advanced Experimental Methods for Noise Research in Nanoscale Electronic Devices Pdf/ePub eBook

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Advanced Experimental Methods for Noise Research in Nanoscale Electronic Devices - Josef Sikula,Michael Levinshtein Summary

A discussion of recently developed experimental methods for noise research in nanoscale electronic devices, conducted by specialists in transport and stochastic phenomena in nanoscale physics. The approach described is to create methods for experimental observations of noise sources, their localization and their frequency spectrum, voltage-current and thermal dependences. Our current knowledge of measurement methods for mesoscopic devices is summarized to identify directions for future research, related to downscaling effects. The directions for future research into fluctuation phenomena in quantum dot and quantum wire devices are specified. Nanoscale electronic devices will be the basic components for electronics of the 21st century. From this point of view the signal-to-noise ratio is a very important parameter for the device application. Since the noise is also a quality and reliability indicator, experimental methods will have a wide application in the future.

Contemporary Problems in Statistical Physics

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Contemporary Problems in Statistical Physics - George H. Weiss Summary

This collection of independent articles describes some mathematical problems recently developed in statistical physics and theoretical chemistry. The book introduces and reviews current research on such topics as nonlinear systems and colored noise, stochastic resonance, percolation, the trapping problem in the theory of random walks, and diffusive models for chemical kinetics. Some of these topics have never before been presented in expository book form. Applied mathematicians will be introduced to some contemporary problems in statistical physics. In addition, a number of unsolved problems currently attracting intensive research efforts are described, and some of the techniques used in this research are outlined, along with principal results and outstanding questions. A wide spectrum of mathematical techniques is covered, but the main emphasis is on introducing the mathematician to different research areas with open and interesting problems. This is an ideal starting point for the mathematician with an elementary acquaintance with the methodology of statistical physics. The material is meant to be introductory and terms are carefully defined. Many topics that require further study are introduced, providing new research ideas for the applied mathematician or thesis problems for the graduate student.

Noise and fluctuations

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Noise and fluctuations - Munecazu Tacano,Yoshiharu Yamamoto,Mitsuyuki Nakao,American Institute of Physics Summary

ICNF 2007 will address a broad variety of topics covering fundamental aspects of noise and fluctuations, as well as applications in various fields. Those related to biological, as well as interdisciplinary aspects of noise and fluctuation research will also be considered.

Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory

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Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory - Vincent D. Blondel,Alexandre Megretski Summary

This book provides clear presentations of more than sixty important unsolved problems in mathematical systems and control theory. Each of the problems included here is proposed by a leading expert and set forth in an accessible manner. Covering a wide range of areas, the book will be an ideal reference for anyone interested in the latest developments in the field, including specialists in applied mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The book consists of ten parts representing various problem areas, and each chapter sets forth a different problem presented by a researcher in the particular area and in the same way: description of the problem, motivation and history, available results, and bibliography. It aims not only to encourage work on the included problems but also to suggest new ones and generate fresh research. The reader will be able to submit solutions for possible inclusion on an online version of the book to be updated quarterly on the Princeton University Press website, and thus also be able to access solutions, updated information, and partial solutions as they are developed.

Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics

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Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics - John N. Bahcall Summary

Essays discuss the present state of knowledge following recent discoveries about the structure of the universe, galaxies, quasars, neutrinos, and other topics, and suggest areas for future research

Noise in Spintronics

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Noise in Spintronics - Farkhad Aliev,Juan Pedro Cascales Summary

This book covers the main physical mechanisms and the different contributions (1/f noise, shot noise, etc.) behind electronic fluctuations in various spintronic devices. It presents the first comprehensive summary of fundamental noise mechanisms in both electronic and spintronic devices and is therefore unique in that aspect. The pedagogic introduction to noise is complemented by a detailed description of how one could set up a noise measurement experiment in the lab. A further extensive description of the recent progress in understanding and controlling noise in spintronics, including the boom in 2D devices, molecular spintronics, and field sensing, is accompanied by both numerous bibliography references and tens of case studies on the fundamental aspects of noise and on some important qualitative steps to understand noise in spintronics. Moreover, a detailed discussion of unsolved problems and outlook make it an essential textbook for scientists and students desiring to exploit the information hidden in noise in both spintronics and conventional electronics.

Noise Sustained Patterns

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Noise Sustained Patterns - Markus Loecher Summary

Ch. 1. Introduction. 1.1. Stability theory revisited. 1.2. Instabilities and nonlinear events in everyday life. 1.3 Postscript -- ch. 2. Essentials. 2.1. Probabilistic and information theoretic measures. 2.2. Matrix manipulations. 2.3. Delay-differential equations. 2.4. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem. 2.5. The Fokker-Planck equation. 2.6. Numerical techniques for the simulation of stochastic equations. 2.7. Experimental aspects of generating noise. 2.8. Complex integration -- ch. 3. Noise induced temporal phenomena. 3.1. Escape from metastable states. 3.2. Stochastic resonance in bistable systems. 3.3. Postscript -- ch. 4. Adding spatial dimensions. 4.1. Spatiotemporal stochastic resonance. 4.2. Doubly stochastic resonance. 4.3. Spatial patterns. 4.4. Postscript -- ch. 5. Stochastic transport phenomena. 5.1. Noise-sustained structures in convectively unstable media. 5.2. Noise sustained front transmission. 5.3. Theory. 5.4. Noise enhanced wave propagation. 5.5. Stochastic ratchets and Brownian motors. 5.6. Postscript -- ch. 6. Sundry topics. 6.1. Minority game. 6.2. Traffic dynamics. 6.3. Dithering. 6.4. Noise in neural networks -- ch. 7. Afterthoughts

Noise and Fluctuations

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Noise and Fluctuations - D. K. C. MacDonald Summary

An understanding of fluctuations and their role is both useful and fundamental to the study of physics. This concise study of random processes offers graduate students and research physicists a survey that encompasses both the relationship of Brownian Movement with statistical mechanics and the problem of irreversible processes. It outlines the basics of the physics involved, without the strictures of mathematical rigor. The three-part treatment starts with a general survey of Brownian Movement, including electrical Brownian Movement and "shot-noise," Part two explores correlation, frequency spectrum, and distribution function, with particular focus on application to Brownian Movement. The final section examines noise in electric currents, including noise in vacuum tubes and a random rectangular current. Frequent footnotes amplify the text, along with an extensive selection of Appendixes.

Low-Frequency Noise in Advanced MOS Devices

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Low-Frequency Noise in Advanced MOS Devices - Martin Haartman,Mikael Östling Summary

This is an introduction to noise, describing fundamental noise sources and basic circuit analysis, discussing characterization of low-frequency noise and offering practical advice that bridges concepts of noise theory and modelling, characterization, CMOS technology and circuits. The text offers the latest research, reviewing the most recent publications and conference presentations. The book concludes with an introduction to noise in analog/RF circuits and describes how low-frequency noise can affect these circuits.

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